Hybrids with Final Neoclassical Combining Forms in Baltic Languages


  • Jurgita MikelionienÄ— Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania




neoclassical compounding, hybridisation, hybrids, final combining forms, modern Lithuanian, modern Latvian, corpus.


The article presents some ideas about the hybrids that are made by combining the neoclassical elements or are mixed of Lithuanian or Latvian and foreign origin combining forms. The examples of hybrids found in English are also provided. This corpus-based investigation reveals that the formation of hybrids with final neoclassical combining forms in modern Baltic languages is a sufficiently active, productive and unobtrusive process of creativity and wit. The identified structural types of hybrids are the following: 1) the hybrids with the international elements of different classical or neoclassical origin; 2) the hybrids with the initial element of non-classical origin. They are almost identical in the analysed languages, suggesting that they are often borrowed and translated rather than created, but if they are created, then this is done by obvious analogy. Some Lithuanian and Latvian hybrids have long been used and included in various dictionaries, and their frequency in the linguistic corpus is quite high. However, most examples of hybrid origin do not exist and probably do not appear in dictionaries due to their rare use, uniqueness, distinctive form or irregularity. The knowledge of hybrid formation and usage can be relevant to the learners of Lithuanian, Latvian, and English, as well as translators, terminologists, and lexicographers.